In 1777, thirteen gunshots were fired in salute, once at morning and once again as evening fell, on July 4 in Bristol, Rhode Island. Philadelphia celebrated the first anniversary in a manner a modern American would find quite familiar: an official dinner for the Continental Congress, toasts, 13-gun salutes, speeches, prayers, music, parades, troop reviews, and fireworks. Ships were decked with red, white, and blue bunting.
In 1778, General George Washington marked July 4 with a double ration of rum for his soldiers and an artillery salute. Across the Atlantic Ocean, ambassadorsJohn Adams and Benjamin Franklin held a dinner for their fellow Americans in Paris, France.
In 1779, July 4 fell on a Sunday. The holiday was celebrated on Monday, July 5.
In 1783, Moravians in Salem, North Carolina, held a celebration of July 4 with a challenging music program assembled by Johann Friedrich Peter. This work was titled “The Psalm of Joy.” This is recognized as the first recorded celebration and is still celebrated there today.
In 1791 the first recorded use of the name “Independence Day” occurred.
In 1870, the U.S. Congress made Independence Day an unpaid holiday for federal employees.
In 1938, Congress changed Independence Day to a paid federal holiday.
The 4th of July doesn’t mean much anymore except for a day off work and an excuse to party. This certainly isn’t the empire the founding fathers imagined when they risked their lives fighting the English overlords in the late 1700’s. In 2013 the idea of a free republic still existing in America is a fantasy, replaced by a technocratic police state ran by foreign banks and globalist loyalists intent on destroying the very core that makes us American – The Constitution.
Here are some images and news articles from the 4th of July 1903.Read more
Waging war is a risky, all-encompassing endeavor physically, emotionally, and psychologically. It displays humankind at its best and at its worst, and the war fighter’s slang reflects the bitter, terrible, and inspiring all of it. A quick scan of these phrases illustrates the spectrum: disciplined bravado provides the glitz and glamour; earned camaraderie, the sincerity and warmth; irony, the realist’s edge; scorn, the punishing barb; and insistent vulgarity, a rowdy,leveling earthiness. A little verbal bravado and swagger has genuine utility. Hollywood bravado is little more than chest thumping bluster, but seasoned vets know that disciplined bravado indicates confidence and courage.
** Vandoo or Van Doo
(Canada) Nickname for the Royal 22e Régiment, based on the English perception of the French pronunciation for “22” (Vingt-deux); said to have lead the Germans to believe the regiment was named Voodoo Regiment during WWI or WWII. Read more
The following list is not a ranking of decisive engagements, but rather a ranking of battles according to their influence on history. Each narrative details location, participants, and leaders of the battle, and also provides commentary on who won, who lost, and why. Narratives also evaluate each battle’s influence on the outcome of its war and the impact on the victors and losers.Read more
Washington-Hoover Airport was demolished in 1941. This is where the Pentagon stands today.
The date of establishment of Hoover Field Hoover Airport, Washington’s first commercial airport, has not been determined.
It was located across the river in nearby Arlington, VA, southwest of the intersection of the George Washington Parkway & the 14th Street Bridge. The earliest depiction which has been located of Hoover Field was on the1923 Washington-NY Airway Map(courtesy of David Brooks), which depicted it (unlabeled) with the red cross & circle airfield symbol. Read more